The engine can be said to be the most important part of the car, and its layout has a major impact on the performance of the car. For cars, the engine layout can be easily divided into front, center and rear. Most of the models currently on the market use front-engines, and the mid- and rear-engines are only used on a few performance sports cars.
Of course, depending on the type of engine placement, it can also be divided into horizontal and vertical engines.
The front engine, that is, the front of the engine front axle. The advantage of the front engine is that it simplifies the structure of the car's transmission and the drive axle. Especially for the front-wheel drive models that are currently dominant, the engine delivers power directly to the front wheels, omitting the long drive shaft. The power transmission loss is reduced, and the complexity and failure rate of the power transmission mechanism are greatly reduced.
In addition, the engine is placed in front of the driver, and in the event of a frontal collision, the engine can protect the driver from impact, thereby improving the safety of the vehicle.
a mid-engine, ie the engine is located between the front and rear axles of the vehicle,
The general cockpit is located before or after the engine. It can be said that the car with the mid-engine is definitely a rear-wheel drive or a four-wheel drive.
When the car is turning, all parts of the car move out of the bend because of inertia. The engine is the most mass part, so the force of the engine due to inertia on the car body has a crucial influence on the steering of the car in the bend. The middle of the engine is characterized by placing the engine with the highest inertia in the vehicle in the center of the car body, which can make the weight distribution of the car body close to the ideal balance. In general, only mid-engines are used in super sports cars or sports cars that are fun to drive.
In general, the most pure rear engine is to arrange the engine behind the rear axle, the most representative is the bus, and the rear engine has a handful of passenger cars, the most representative is the Porsche 911, of course, smart It is also a rear engine. The classic models of the Volkswagen Beetle and the Fiat 126P were also rear engines.
A transverse engine is a parallel of the engine and the front axle of the car. Simply put, you are standing in front of the front of the car to the engine. If the engine is placed horizontally in front of your eyes, it is to traverse the engine.
In general, the predecessor's compact sedan, most mid-size sedan and a few high-class sedan are all equipped with a transverse engine arrangement.
The vertical engine means that the engine is perpendicular to the front axle of the car. Simply put, you stand in front of the front of the car to the engine. If the engine is placed vertically in front of your eyes, it is a vertical engine.
In general, rear-drive vehicles use a vertical engine, because the power is transmitted to the rear axle. In the case where the transmission distance cannot be shortened, the direction change of the power should be reduced as much as possible. If the transverse direction is used, because the direction of the crankshaft and the drive shaft are perpendicular, the direction is first converted to transmit power through the transmission shaft, but the direction of the drive shaft and the direction of the rear axle are also vertical, so the rear axle needs to be The direction of rotation is reversed, which undoubtedly reduces the efficiency of the drive train. The use of a vertical engine allows the crankshaft to be parallel to the drive shaft, reducing the conversion of the primary drive direction, undoubtedly reducing energy losses.
“Reverse” is a special arrangement of the transverse engine. The usual transverse engine exhaust manifold is in front, and the rear arrangement of the intake manifold is simply “before and after,” if it will enter The position of the exhaust gas is exchanged, the intake manifold is placed at the front end, and the exhaust manifold is placed at the rear, becoming "forward and backward", which is called "reverse". Only the horizontally placed engine has the "positive and reverse" theory. The longitudinal and vertical engine intake and exhaust manifolds are at the left and right ends. There is no difference in the interchange, so there is no such statement.
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